I. LAND DEVELOPMENT WORKS: Land Development Works are mainly earthen
works for development of land to make it suitable for cultivation on a sustained basis.
Under this earthen bund, drainage channel, land leveling, contour and graded
bunding, terracing etc. are covered in the cropland or wasteland for sustainable
agricultural development. Following types of land development works are taken up.
a).Field bunding and contour bunding: These are bunds made of earth fill. A series of
bunds of suitable height and top and bottom width are constructed across the slope at
suitable intervals which checks flow of runoff and aids in conservation of water within
the land area under bunding. This gives increased production from the cultivated
b).Bench Terracing: When land slope is more, bunding is not effective for checking
erosion. In such cases benches are made by half-cut half fill of the top soil across the
slope of the land.
II. LAND RECLAMATION AND WATER DISTRIBUTION: Low lying waterlogged areas unfit for any productive use is reclaimed by constructing suitably designed drainage channel through the waterlogged area and disposing the stagnant water through these channels to adjacent river/streams. Land reclamation is also done by cutting and leveling of tillah lands and eradication and removal of weeds like Ipomoea, water hyacinth either by manually/ mechanically or by using herbicides.
III. GULLY CONTROL WORKS: Gully erosion is the main erosion problem of the state which eats up about 3000 hectares of agricultural land annually. Gullies are the formation in the soil by the surface runoff water and thereby initiating sheet and rill erosion and finally the gullies resulting in quantifiable loss of top fertile soil by means of erosion. Gully control structures like spillways, check dams etc are constructed to stop further advancement of the gully heads and fingers and to improve the moisture regime in the command areas which results in increase in production from agricultural land.
IV. RIVER TRAINING /RIVER BANK STABILIZATION WORKS: The rivers/streams in Assam are meandering in nature and have caused severe river bank erosion problems in areas adjacent to banks. Due to heavy sedimentation in riverbeds, the problem is getting worse every year. Protection of river from bank erosion, stabilisation of eroded river bank, reducing of meandering of river etc is the main importance of this Department. Under this the Department constructs bamboo/brash wood/boulder Major Activities of the Department spurs, boulder revetments with vegetative support, loop cutting works etc to tackle the problems.
V.CASH CROP DEVELOPMENT: In hillock with moderate slope, cash crops like Rubber, Coffee are grown for soil conservation and optimum use of land on a sustained basis. In Assam, there is wide scope for developing Coffee and Rubber plantations. Soil Conservation Department is pioneer in introducing Coffee and Rubber in Assam. However after formation of Assam Plantation Crops Development Corporation, Soil Conservation Department has scaled down its activity in this field. Coffee and Rubber plantations have been established extensively by Soil Conservation Department as part of programs for settlement of Jhummias in hill districts of Karbi Anglong and N.C. Hills
VI.NATURE CONSERVATION/LANDSCAPING & BEAUTIFICATION WORKS: Nature Conservation, Landscaping and Beautification works are done in some of the districts, have created positive impact on people and also maintains microclimate to some extent.
VII. PROTECTIVE AFFORESTATION: All the riverine non agricultural land, degraded wasteland not suitable for raising agricultural crops are brought under plantation to provide permanent cover to the top soil.